The New International Language: Study reveals how bilinguals use emoticons to find consensus


No surprise and more can be found at


When bilinguals “code-switch,” or alternate between two or more languages, they are changing how they communicate with respect to the words they choose, while adhering to the idea they intend to share.


Research on Code-Switching in Bilinguals



Undertaken with the help of volunteer young adults in the UAE who speak Arabic and English, the work found that, when bilingual people change languages naturally, without being required to, the regions of the brain in charge of exerting control appear to not be involved at all. This result ties in with the perception of bilinguals that changing languages is not taxing.“I think the surprising part of the findings is the complete absence of these executive control demands in fully natural conversation or a fully free production [naming] task,” said Prof Pylkkänen.

More in How difficult is it for bilingual people to switch from Arabic to English? at

TED TALK on Code-Switching


Shared by one of my students
From Jamila Lyiscott: 3 ways to speak English

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